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New Algorithms for Parking Demand Management and a City Scale Deployment

Onno Zoeter, Chris Dance, St├ęphane Clinchant, Jean-Marc Andreoli
On-street parking, just as any publicly owned utility, is used inefficiently if access is free or priced very far from mar- ket rates. This paper introduces a novel demand manage- ment solution: using data from dedicated occupancy sensors an iteration scheme updates parking rates to better match demand. The new rates encourage parkers to avoid peak hours and peak locations and reduce congestion and under- use. The solution is deliberately simple so that it is easy to understand, easily seen to be fair and leads to parking policies that are easy to remember and act upon. We study the convergence properties of the iteration scheme and prove that it converges to a reasonable distribution for a very large class of models. The algorithm is in use to change parking rates in over 6000 spaces in downtown Los Angeles since June 2012 as part of the LA Express Park project. Initial results are encouraging with a reduction of congestion and underuse, while in more locations rates were decreased than increased.
KDD 2014, New York City, USA, August 24-27, 2014.